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Foreign leaders:
Chronology


Year British flag Britain
P.M.
French flagFrance
Pres. *
German flagGermany (W)
Chanc.
Italy flagItaly
P.M.
Canada flagCanada
P.M.
Japan flagJapan
P.M.
Russia flagRussia (USSR)
Pres. (Gen.Sec.) *
China flagChina
Pres./Gen.Sec. **
India flagIndia
P.M.
1974 H. Wilson
(1974)
Giscard d'Est.
(1974)
H. Schmidt
(1974)
Aldo Moro
(1974)
P. Trudeau
(1968)
T. Miki
(1974)
Brezhnev
(1964)
Mao Zedong
(1949)
I. Gandhi
(1966)
1975 H. Wilson Giscard d'Est. H. Schmidt Aldo Moro P. Trudeau T. Miki Brezhnev Mao Zedong I. Gandhi
1976 H. Wilson Giscard d'Est. H. Schmidt G. Andreotti /
A. Moro
P. Trudeau T. Miki Brezhnev Mao Zedong /
Hua Guofeng
I. Gandhi
1977 Callaghan Giscard d'Est. H. Schmidt G. Andreotti P. Trudeau T. Fukuda Brezhnev Hua Guofeng I. Gandhi /
Morarji Desai
1978 Callaghan Giscard d'Est. H. Schmidt G. Andreotti P. Trudeau Fukuda / Ohira Brezhnev Hua Guofeng /
Deng Xiao-ping
Morarji Desai
1979 Callaghan / Thatcher Giscard d'Est. H. Schmidt G. Andreotti /
F. Cossiga
P. Trudeau / Joe Clark M. Ohira Brezhnev Deng Xiao-ping M. Desai /
C. Singh
1980 M. Thatcher Giscard d'Est. H. Schmidt F. Cossiga /
A. Forlani
Joe Clark / P. Trudeau Ohira / / Suzuki Brezhnev Deng Xiao-ping I. Gandhi
1981 M. Thatcher Giscard d'Est. / Mitterrand H. Schmidt A. Forlani /
G. Spadolini
P. Trudeau Z. Suzuki Brezhnev Deng Xiao-ping I. Gandhi
1982 M. Thatcher F. Mitterrand Schmidt / Kohl G. Spadolini P. Trudeau Z. Suzuki /
Y. Nakasone
Brezhnev Deng Xiao-ping I. Gandhi
1983 M. Thatcher F. Mitterrand Helmut Kohl A. Fanfani /
B. Craxi
P. Trudeau Y. Nakasone Y. Andropov Deng Xiao-ping I. Gandhi
1984 M. Thatcher F. Mitterrand Helmut Kohl Bettino Craxi Trudeau / Turner / Mulroney Y. Nakasone Andropov / Chernenko Deng Xiao-ping I. Gandhi /
R. Gandhi
1985 M. Thatcher F. Mitterrand Helmut Kohl Bettino Craxi B. Mulroney Y. Nakasone Chernenko / Gorbachev Deng Xiao-ping R. Gandhi
1986 M. Thatcher F. Mitterrand Helmut Kohl Bettino Craxi B. Mulroney Y. Nakasone M. Gorbachev Deng Xiao-ping R. Gandhi
1987 M. Thatcher F. Mitterrand Helmut Kohl Craxi / Andr. / Goria B. Mulroney Y. Nakasone /
N. Takeshita
M. Gorbachev Deng Xiao-ping R. Gandhi
1988 M. Thatcher F. Mitterrand Helmut Kohl G. Goria /
Ciriaco de Mita
B. Mulroney N. Takeshita M. Gorbachev Deng Xiao-ping R. Gandhi
1989 M. Thatcher F. Mitterrand Helmut Kohl de Mita / G. Andreotti B. Mulroney Takeshita /
Uno / Kaifu
M. Gorbachev Deng Xiao-ping R. Gandhi /
V.P. Singh
1990 Thatcher / Major F. Mitterrand Helmut Kohl G. Andreotti B. Mulroney T. Kaifu M. Gorbachev Deng Xiao-ping V.P. Singh / Shekhar
1991 John Major F. Mitterrand Helmut Kohl G. Andreotti B. Mulroney Kaifu / Miyazawa M. Gorbachev Deng Xiao-ping Ch. Shekhar /
P.V.N. Rao
1992 John Major F. Mitterrand Helmut Kohl G. Andreotti /
G. Amato
B. Mulroney K. Miyazawa Boris Yeltsin Deng Xiao-ping P.V. Narasimha Rao
1993 John Major F. Mitterrand Helmut Kohl G. Amato /
C. Azeglio C.
Mulroney / Campbell / Chretien K. Miyazawa / Hosokawa Boris Yeltsin Jiang Zemin P.V. Narasimha Rao
1994 John Major F. Mitterrand Helmut Kohl Azeglio /
S. Berlusconi
Jean Chretien Hosokawa / Hata /
Murayama
Boris Yeltsin Jiang Zemin P.V. Narasimha Rao
1995 John Major Mitterrand / Chirac Helmut Kohl Lamberto Dini Jean Chretien Murayama Boris Yeltsin Jiang Zemin P.V. Narasimha Rao
1996 John Major Jacques Chirac Helmut Kohl Romano Prodi Jean Chretien Hashimoto Boris Yeltsin Jiang Zemin P.V.N. Rao /
H.D.D. Gowda
1997 Major / Blair Jacques Chirac Helmut Kohl Romano Prodi Jean Chretien Hashimoto Boris Yeltsin Jiang Zemin H.D.D. Gowda /
I. K. Gujral
1998 Tony Blair Jacques Chirac Kohl / Schroeder M. D'Alema Jean Chretien Hashimoto / Obuchi Boris Yeltsin Jiang Zemin Gujral / Vajpayee
1999 Tony Blair Jacques Chirac G. Schroeder M. D'Alema Jean Chretien K. Obuchi Boris Yeltsin Jiang Zemin A.B. Vajpayee
2000 Tony Blair Jacques Chirac G. Schroeder M. D'Alema Jean Chretien Obuchi / Mori Vladimir Putin Jiang Zemin A.B. Vajpayee
2001 Tony Blair Jacques Chirac G. Schroeder M. D'Alema / S. Berlusconi Jean Chretien Mori / Koizumi Vladimir Putin Jiang Zemin A.B. Vajpayee
2002 Tony Blair Jacques Chirac G. Schroeder S. Berlusconi Jean Chretien J. Koizumi Vladimir Putin Jiang Zemin A.B. Vajpayee
2003 Tony Blair Jacques Chirac G. Schroeder S. Berlusconi Chretien / Martin J. Koizumi Vladimir Putin Jiang /
Hu (Mar.)
A.B. Vajpayee
2004 Tony Blair Jacques Chirac G. Schroeder S. Berlusconi Paul Martin J. Koizumi Vladimir Putin Hu Jintao Vajpayee /
Singh (May)
2005 Tony Blair Jacques Chirac Schroeder /
Merkel (Nov.)
S. Berlusconi Paul Martin J. Koizumi Vladimir Putin Hu Jintao M. Singh
2006 Tony Blair Jacques Chirac Angela Merkel Romano Prodi Martin /
Harper (Feb.)
J. Koizumi / S. Abe Vladimir Putin Hu Jintao M. Singh
2007 Blair / Brown Chirac /
Sarkozy (May)
Angela Merkel Romano Prodi Stephen Harper Shinzo Abe / Y. Fukuda Vladimir Putin Hu Jintao M. Singh
2008 Gordon Brown Nicholas Sarkozy Angela Merkel Prodi /
Berlusconi (May)
Stephen Harper Yasuo Fukuda /
T. Aso
Putin /
Medvedev
Hu Jintao M. Singh
2009 Gordon Brown Nicholas Sarkozy Angela Merkel S. Berlusconi Stephen Harper Aso /
Hatoyama
D. Medvedev Hu Jintao M. Singh
2010 Brown /
Cameron (May)
Nicholas Sarkozy Angela Merkel S. Berlusconi Stephen Harper Hatoyama /
Naoto Kan (June)
D. Medvedev Hu Jintao M. Singh
2011 David Cameron Nicholas Sarkozy Angela Merkel Berlusconi /
Monti (Oct.)
Stephen Harper Kan /
Noda (Sept.)
D. Medvedev Hu Jintao M. Singh
2012 David Cameron Sarkozy /
Hollande (May)
Angela Merkel Mario Monti Stephen Harper Yoshihiko Noda /
Abe (Dec.)
Medvedev / Putin Hu Jintao M. Singh
2013 David Cameron Francois Hollande Angela Merkel Monti / Letta (Apr.) Stephen Harper Shinzo Abe Vladimir Putin Hu / Xi Jinping (Mar.) M. Singh
2014 David Cameron Francois Hollande Angela Merkel Letta / Renzi (Feb.) Stephen Harper Shinzo Abe Vladimir Putin Xi Jinping Singh / Narendra Modi
2015 David Cameron Francois Hollande Angela Merkel Matteo Renzi Harper / Trudeau Shinzo Abe Vladimir Putin Xi Jinping Narendra Modi
2016 Cameron / T. May Francois Hollande Angela Merkel Matteo Renzi Justin Trudeau Shinzo Abe Vladimir Putin Xi Jinping Narendra Modi
Year Britain France Germany Italy Canada Japan Russia China India
KEY: . Communist Left wing
(incl. moderate communist)
Moderate left Centrist, undefined, or switched Moderate right Right wing Fascist .
NOTE: In general, names listed for each year pertain to whoever was serving at mid-year. Ideological orientation is based on the leader's party as well as his or her government's actual policy direction. The adjective "moderate" is by international standards. For example, Deng Xiao-ping pushed for liberal reforms in China's economy, but he maintained an iron grip on political power, so it would be difficult to label him a "moderate" leftist in the same category as Tony Blair. Information is subject to correction; in case of doubt, ideology has been left undefined (indicated by gray).

The first six countries listed above have been partners with the United States in the Group of Seven (G-7) nations since the mid-1970s. Russia joined several years ago, making it the "G-8." China and India are the two newly-emerging superpowers. Six of the nine countries have parliamentary forms of government, in which the legislature chooses the head of government, usually called the prime minister. There are no explicitly separate branches of government, as in the United States.
*France and Russia have semi-presidential systems in which the president is the top official, directly elected by the people, but shares power with the premier.
**China is a one-party authoritarian state in which formal government titles are sometimes of secondary importance. Mao Zedong was the "Chairman" of the Chinese Communist Party, but that position was replaced by "General Secretary" in the early 1980s. From 1979 until 1992, the de facto chief executive in China was Deng Xiao-ping, but he resigned as Chairman of the CPC Military Commission in late 1989, the last key position he held. Since 1993, every new General Secretary is customarily elected as President about a year later.

Also see: Latin American presidents chronology.

SOURCES: The Facts On File World Political Almanac, 3rd ed. (1995); The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2012