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The final frontier!
Space missions:
  chronology

Year Soviet / Russian manned missions American manned missions U.S. notes /
Chinese missions
Mission name Launch dates, notes Mission name Launch dates, notes Mission name Launch date
# 1 # 2
(#1)
# 3
(#2)
# 4
(#3)
# 5
(#4)
# 6 # 1 # 2 # 3 # 4 # 5 # 6 # 7 # 8 # 9
1961 Vostok 1, * 2 12 Apr 6 Aug * 1st man in space: Yuri Gargarin Mercury 3, 4 5 May 12 Jul - - - - - - - Alan Shepherd (1st U.S.)
1962 Vostok 3, 4 11 Aug 12 Aug - - - - Mercury 6, 7, 8 20 Feb 24 May 3 Oct - - - - - - John Glenn (1st U.S. orbit)
1963 Vostok 5, 6* 14 Jun 16 Jun * 1st woman: Valentina Tereshkova Mercury 9 15 May - - - - - - - -
1964 Voshkod 1 12 Oct - - * 1st crew of 3 - - - - - - - - - - -
1965 Voshkod 2 18 Mar - - * 1st crew of 2 - Gemini 3 - 7 23 Mar 3 Jun 21 Aug 4 Dec 15 Dec - - - - * 1st U.S. crews of 2
1966 - - - - - - - Gemini 8 - 12 16 Mar 3 Jun 18 Jul 12 Sep 11 Nov - - - -
1967 Soyuz 1 * 23 Apr - - * 1 died in reentry - Apollo 1 ** - - - - - - - - ** burned on launch pad 27 Jan; 3 died.
1968 Soyuz 3 26 Oct - - - - - Apollo 7, 8 * 11 Oct 21 Dec - - - - - - - * U.S. orbited moon.
1969 Soyuz 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 14 Jan 15 Jan 11 Oct 12 Oct 13 Oct - Apollo 9, 10, 11,12 3 Mar 18 May 16 Jul 14 Nov - - - - Moon landings! Neil Armstrong is 1st.
1970 Soyuz 9 1 Jun - - - - - Apollo 13** 11 Apr - - - - - - - - ** Explosion, safe return
1971 Soyuz 10, 11* 22 Apr 6 Jun *Salyut-1 space station; 3 died Apollo 14, 15 31 Jan 26 Jul - - - - - - - Moon landings
1972 - - - - - - - Apollo 16, 17 16 Apr 7 Dec - - - - - - - Moon landings
1973 Soyuz 12, 13 27 Sep 18 Dec - crews of just 2 - Skylab 2, 3, 4 25 May 28 Jul 16 Nov - - - - - - 1st U.S. space station.
1974 Soyuz 14, 15, 16 3 Jul 26 Aug 2 Dec Salyut-3 military space station - - - - - - - - -
1975 Soyuz 17, 18, 19 * 10 Jan 24 May 15 Jul - - - Apollo 18 * 15 Jul - - - - - - - - * joint USA-USSR mission
1976 Soyuz 21, 22, 23 6 Jul 15 Sep 14 Oct - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1977 Soyuz 24, 25, 26 7 Feb 9 Oct 10 Dec - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1978 Soyuz 27-31 10 Jan 2 Mar 15 Jun 27 Jun 26 Aug - - - - - - - - - - -
1979 Soyuz 32, 33 25 Feb 10 Apr - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1980 Soyuz 35-38,T2,T3 9 Apr 26 May 5 Jun 23 Jul 18 Sep 27 Nov - - - - - - - - - -
1981 Soyuz T4, 39, 40 12 Mar 22 Mar 14 May "T": crews of 3 - STS 1, 2 12 Apr* 12 Nov - - - - - - * Space Shuttle Columbia 1st launch
1982 Soyuz T5, T6, T7 13 May 24 Jun 19 Aug Salyut-7 space station STS 3, 4, 5 22 Mar 27 Jun 11 Nov - - - - - -
1983 Soyuz T8, T9 20 Apr 28 Jun - - - - STS 6, 7, 8, 9 4 Apr* 18 Jun 30 Aug 28 Nov - - - - - * Challenger 1st launch
1984 Soyuz T10-T12 8 Feb 3 Apr 17 Jul - - STS 41B,C,D,G, 51A 3 Feb 6 Apr 30 Aug* 5 Oct 8 Nov - - - - * Discovery 1st launch
1985 Soyuz T13*, T14 5 Jun* 17 Sep * Salyut-7 fixed - STS 51C,D,B,G,F,I,J,61A,B 24 Jan 12 Apr 29 Apr 17 Jun 29 Jul 27 Aug 3 Oct* 30 Oct 26 Nov * Atlantis 1st launch
1986 Soyuz T15 13 Mar - - Mir space station. STS 61C, 51L 12 Jan 28 Jan* - - - - - - * Challenger blew up, 7 died.
1987 Soyuz TM2-4 5 Feb 22 Jul 21 Dec - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1988 Soyuz TM5-7 7 Jun 29 Aug 26 Nov - - - STS 26, 27 29 Sep 2 Dec - - - - - - -
1989 Soyuz TM8 5 Sep - - - - STS 29,30,28,34,33 13 Mar 4 May 8 Aug 18 Oct 22 Nov - - - -
1990 Soyuz TM9,10,11 11 Feb 1 Aug 2 Dec - - STS 32,36,31*,41,38,35 9 Jan 28 Feb 24 Apr* 6 Oct 15 Nov 2 Dec - - - * Hubble telescope
1991 Soyuz TM12,13 18 May 2 Oct - - - STS 37,39,40,43,48,44 5 Apr 28 Apr 5 Jun 2 Aug 12 Sep 24 Nov - - -
1992 Soyuz TM14,15 17 Mar 27 Jul - - - STS 42,45,49,50,46,47,52,53 22 Jan 24 Mar 7 May* 25 Jun 31 Jul 12 Sep 22 Oct 2 Dec - * Endeavor 1st launch
1993 Soyuz TM16,17 24 Jan 1 Jul - - - STS 54,56,55,57,51,58,61 13 Jan 8 Apr 26 Apr 21 Jun 12 Sep 18 Oct 2 Dec* - - * Hubble repair
1994 Soyuz TM18-20 8 Jan 1 Jul 3 Oct - - STS 60,62,59,65,64,68,66 3 Feb 4 Mar 9 Apr 8 Jul 9 Sep 30 Sep 3 Nov - -
1995 Soyuz TM21,22 14 Mar 3 Sep - - - STS 63,67,71,70,69,73,74 3 Feb 2 Mar 27 Jun* 13 Jul 7 Sep 20 Oct 12 Nov - - * Docks at Mir space station.
1996 Soyuz TM23,24 21 Feb 17 Aug - - - STS 72,75,76,77,78,79,80 11 Jan 22 Feb 22 Mar 19 May 20 Jun 16 Sep 19 Nov - -
1997 Soyuz TM25,26 10 Feb 5 Aug - - - STS 81,82,83,84,94,85,86,87 12 Jan 11 Feb 4 Apr 15 May 1 Jul 7 Aug 25 Sep 19 Nov - -
1998 Soyuz TM27,28 29 Jan 13 Aug - - - STS 89,90,91,95,88 22 Jan 17 Apr 2 Jun 29 Oct 4 Dec - - - - International Space Station
1999 Soyuz TM29 20 Feb - - - - STS 96, 93, 103 27 May 23 Jul 19 Dec - - - - - - ISS
2000 Soyuz TM30,31 4 Apr 31 Oct - - - STS 99,101,106,92,97 11 Feb 19 May 8 Sep 11 Oct 30 Nov - - - - ISS
2001 Soyuz TM32,33 28 Apr 21 Oct - - - STS 98,102,100,104,105,108 7 Feb 8 Mar 19 Apr 12 Jul 10 Aug 5 Dec - - - ISS
2002 Soyuz TM34,TMA1 25 Apr 30 Oct - - - STS 109,110,111,112,113 16 Jan - - - - - - - - ISS
2003 Soyuz TMA2,3 26 Apr 18 Oct - - - - STS 107** 16 Jan - - - ** Columbia burned in reentry; 7 died. Shenzhou 5 5 Oct
2004 Soyuz TMA4,5 19 Apr 14 Oct - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2005 Soyuz TMA6,7 15 Apr 1 Oct - - - - STS 114 26 Jul - - - - - - Discovery Shenzhou 6 5 Oct
2006 Soyuz TMA8,9 30 Mar 18 Sep - - - - STS 121,115,116 4 Jul 9 Sep 9 Dec - - - - ISS - -
2007 Soyuz TMA10,11 7 Apr 10 Oct - - - - STS 117,118,120 8 Jun 8 Aug 23 Oct - - - - ISS - -
2008 Soyuz TMA12,13 8 Apr 12 Oct - - - STS 122,123,124,126 7 Feb 11 Mar 31 May 14 Nov - - - ISS Shenzhou 7 25 Sep
2009 Soyuz TMA14-17 26 Mar 27 May 30 Sep 20 Dec - STS 119,125,127,128,129 15 Mar 11 May 15 Jul 28 Aug 16 Nov - - ISS, Hubble - -
2010 Soyuz TMA18,19,01M,20 2 Apr 15 Jun 7 Oct 15 Dec - STS 130,131,132 8 Feb 5 Apr 14 May - - - - ISS - -
2011 Soyuz TMA21,02M,22,03M 4 Apr 7 Jun 14 Nov 21 Dec - STS 133,134,135 24 Feb 16 May 8 Jul - U.S. Space Shuttles are retired:
Discovery, Endeavor, Atlantis; ISS
- -
2012 Soyuz TMA04M-07M 15 May 15 July 23 Oct 19 Dec - - - - - - Shenzhou 9 16 Jun
2013 Soyuz TMA08M-11M 28 Mar 28 May 25 Sep 07 Nov - - - - - - - - - - - Shenzhou 10 11 Jun
2014 Soyuz TMA12M-15M 25 Mar 28 May 25 Sep 23 Nov - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2015 Soyuz TMA16M-19M 27 Mar 22 Jul 02 Sep 15 Dec - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2016 Soyuz TMA20M; MS01-03 18 Mar 7 Jul 19 Oct 17 Nov - - - - - - - - - - - Shenzhou 11 16 Oct

Historic unmanned space missions

Launch date Country Name of
mission
Accomplishments
Dec. 1942 Germany A4 / V2 first large guided rocket (50 miles high)
Oct. 1957 U.S.S.R. Sputnik 1 first satellite in orbit
Jan. 1958 U.S.A. Explorer 1 first U.S. satellite in orbit
Jan. 1959 U.S.S.R. Luna 1 first probe to fly by the moon
Sept. 1959 U.S.S.R. Luna 2 first probe to impact the moon
Sept. 1960 U.S.A. Pioneer 4 first U.S. probe to impact the moon
Aug. 1962 U.S.A. Mariner 2 first probe to fly by Venus
Nov. 1964 U.S.A. Mariner 4 first probe to fly by Mars (July 1965)
Nov. 1965 U.S.S.R. Venera 3 first probe to impact Venus (Mar. 1966)
Jan. 1966 U.S.S.R. Luna 9 first probe to land softly on the moon
June 1966 U.S.A. Surveyor 1 first U.S. probe to land softly on the moon
Aug. 1970 U.S.S.R. Venera 7 first probe to land softly on Venus (Dec. 1970)
May 1971 U.S.S.R. Mars 3 first probe to land softly on Mars (Dec. 1971)
Mar. 1972 U.S.A. Pioneer 10 first probe to fly by Jupiter (Dec. 1973) & first to exit solar system (1983)
Apr. 1973 U.S.A. Pioneer 11 first probe to fly by Saturn (Sept. 1979); also Jupiter
Nov. 1973 U.S.A. Mariner 10 first probe to fly by Mercury (Mar. 1974); also Venus
Oct. 1975 U.S.A. Viking 1 first U.S. probe to land softly on Mars (July 1976)
Aug. 1977 U.S.A. Voyager 2 first probe to fly by Uranus (Jan. 1986) & Neptune (Aug. 1989); also Jupiter & Saturn
Jan. 2006 U.S.A. New Horizons first probe to fly by Pluto (July 2015)

SOURCES: Valerie Neal, Cathleen S. Lewis, and Frank H. Winter, Spaceflight: A Smithsonian Guide (New York: Macmillan USA, 1995); World Almanac and Book of Facts: 2012; www.nasa.gov, www.russianspaceweb.com, www.cracked.com, wikipedia.org: Russian missions (1994 to date), Chinese missions

In addition, chimpanzees were used to test the American space capsules during Project Mercury, hence the missing sequence numbers. January 31, 1961 HAM; and November 29, 1961: Enos. See spacechimps.com. The Russians used a dog ("Laika") for that purpose; see space.com.